Selected chapters on astrophysics (NAST021)

This course is taught in winter semesters and consists of a few independent sub-courses that attempt to provide some insights into the state of the art knowledge in the respective branches of astrophysics or related scientific disciplines. In order to successfully pass the exam, students must complete a set of homeworks from all of the mandatory sub-courses of the given semester (in maroon below) and present the chosen methods and obtained (correct) results to the examiner (or the whole class) until June 30th of the given academic year. All kinds of information sources are allowed (including consultations with the lecturers and other students). The grade is derived from the degree of correctness of the solutions. Students may enroll to this course repeatedly. In case of any (course concerning) inquiries, please contact Jaroslav Haas, preferably via email 'haas' (the strange symbol) ''.

Programme of the winter semester 2019/2020

Icy moons in the Solar System
Klára Kalousová (Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague)

- in room TAU: Tuesday, October 8th (14:50); Tuesday, October 15th (14:50); Tuesday, October 22nd (14:50); Tuesday, October 29th (14:50)
- slides: 1, 2, 3, 4
- exam homework: description
- topics covered in the individual lectures:

1) Motivation - why do we study icy moons. History of exploration - from ground-based observations to spacecraft missions, overview of past and present missions. Basic surface characteristics - composition, age, and morphology (tectonics, cryovolcanism).
2) Interior structure - layered models based on gravity, shape, and composition data. Structure of the hydrosphere, water/ice phase diagram. Evidence for the presence of liquid oceans. Preferred models for selected satellites (Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus, Titan).
3) Thermal evolution - heat sources, means of heat transfer (conduction vs convection). Dynamics of the different planetary layers. Melting and crystallization, effect of anti-freezers. Implications for the long-term stability of subsurface oceans.
4) Selected applications - melting in the ice crust of Europa, long-term stability of Titan's ocean, material exchange through high-pressure ice layers of large satellites. Overview of future missions.

Dynamics of black holes in dense stellar systems
Sambaran Banerjee (University of Bonn, Germany)

- in room TAU: Monday, November 4th (16:00); Tuesday, November 5th (14:50); Wednesday, November 6th (14:00)
- slides & movies: 1, 2, 3, m1, m2
- exam homework: description
- abstracts of the individual lectures:

1) Introduction and preliminaries: This lecture will start with discussing the current whereabouts and future plans in the field of gravitational-wave detection and observational efforts in identifying black holes in stellar clusters. Next, a few key related concepts in stellar dynamics, e.g., energy equipartition and Spitzer instability will be introduced.
2) Dynamics of black holes: Continuing from Lecture 1, this lecture will focus on dynamical interactions among stellar-mass black holes in a star-cluster environment. The different mechanisms of pairing up black holes in such environments to produce gravitational-wave emitting sources, especially for the LIGO and the LISA instruments, will be discussed. Examples will be presented from the literature. Observational signatures for dynamically-formed gravitational-wave sources will be highlighted.
3) On the masses of stellar-mass black holes: The discussions from Lecture 2 will continue in the first part. Then an overview of the different N-body codes utilized for studying such problems will be given. Finally, we will have a literature overview of what is known and widely discussed about masses of black holes (the so called "black hole zoo") produced through stellar supernovae and how they are being adopted in various numerical codes.

Diffusive shock acceleration
Anabella Araudo (ELI Beamlines, Dolní Břežany & Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague)

- in room TAU: Wednesday, November 13th (14:00); Tuesday, November 19th (14:50); Wednesday, November 20th (14:00)
- slides: 1, 2, 3
- topics covered in the individual lectures:

Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) is the most established mechanism to accelerate particles in astrophysical sources where shocks are present. In these lectures we will review the most important ingredients of the DSA theory, as well as well known particle accelerators in the Universe.
1) Historical background and motivation. Astrophysical (collision-less) shocks. Determination of the particle spectrum through the synchrotron emission.
2) Fermi I acceleration process. Fokker-Planck equation and its solutions.
3) Particle accelerators in the Universe (e.g. supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts).

Numerical solution of partial differential equations
Pavel Ševeček (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague)

- in room TAU: Wednesday, November 27th (14:00); Wednesday, December 4th (14:00); Wednesday, December 18th (14:00); Wednesday, January 8th (14:00)
- resources: slides, movies, simulations, example codes
- exam homework: description
- topics covered in the series:

Lectures will cover basics of numerical solution of PDEs, using both Eulerian (FDM, FEM) and Lagrangian (SPH) approaches:
1) Finite difference method: Explicit vs. implicit schemes. Leapfrog integrator, predictor-corrector methods, Runge-Kutta, Bulirsch-Stoer. Truncation error and stability. Boundary conditions. 2D and 3D problems. Solution of sparse linear systems.
2) Finite element method: Weak formulation of PDEs. Method of weighted residuals, Galerkin method. Mass and stiffness matrix. (Semi-)linearization, Picard iteration. Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions.
3) Smoothed particle hydrodynamics: SPH kernels. Discretization of hydrodynamic equations. Conservation laws vs. discretization error. Smoothing lengths, adaptive spatial resolution. Artificial viscosity. Surface representation and surface forces. Initial and boundary conditions, ghost particles. Efficient neighbour queries.

N-body methods and algorithms
Sverre Aarseth (University of Cambridge, UK)

- in room TAU: Monday, December 9th (9:50); Monday, December 9th (12:20); Tuesday, December 10th (14:50); Wednesday, December 11th (14:00)
- slides: 1
- programme:

Basic integration. Hermite method. Neighbour scheme. Close encounters. Chain regularization. Astrophysics. Post-Newtonian. Practicals.

Past years

10/2018 Jaroslav Dudík (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague): On the outer solar atmosphere - slides & movies 1, 2, 3, m1, m2, m3, m4
10—12/2018 Jakub Řípa (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague & MTA-Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary): Introduction to gamma-ray burst astrophysics - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11 & 12/2018 Ondřej Pejcha (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University, Prague): Astrophysics of gravitational wave sources - slides 1, 2, 3
1/2019 Hongsheng Zhao (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, UK): An introduction to gravitational microlensing - slides available upon request; further reading on this Wikipedia page

10/2017 Anatoly Miroshnichenko (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA): The emerging variety of binary systems among objects with gas-and-dust envelopes - slides 1
10 & 11/2017 Rhys Taylor (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague): The dark side of galaxy evolution - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11/2017 Robert Williams (Space Telescope Science Institute & Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA): Emission-line spectroscopy and analysis - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11 & 12/2017 Petr Brož (Institute of Geophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague): Vulkanismus ve sluneční soustavě - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
12/2017 & 1/2018   Jörg Dabringhausen (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague): An introduction to dwarf galaxies - slides 1, 2, 3
1/2018 Michael Fellhauer (University of Concepción, Chile): The survival of star clusters - slides 1

11/2016 Douglas Heggie (University of Edinburgh, UK): Computation and astrophysics of the N-body problem - slides 1
11/2016 Jason Dexter (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany): The Galactic Centre black hole laboratory - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
12/2016 & 1/2017   Pavel Kroupa (University of Bonn, Germany; Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague): Modern advances in galactic astrophysics: from scale-invariant dynamics to a successful theory of galaxy formation and evolution - slides 1, 2, 3, 4

10 & 11/2015 Petr Kabáth (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Ondřejov): Exoplanety - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11/2015 & 1/2016   Attila Mészáros (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague), Martin Jelínek (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Ondřejov): Zábleskové zdroje záření gama - slides 1, 2
11 & 12/2015 Pavel Kroupa (University of Bonn, Germany): Stellar populations and star clusters as galactic building blocks - slides 1, 2, 3, 4

Very past years

říjen 2014 Frédéric Marin (AsÚ AVČR): Astrophysical polarimetry (prezentace 1., 2. a 3. část)
listopad 2014 Aleš Bezděk (AsÚ AVČR): Gravitační pole Země: nová pozorování a poznatky z umělých družic (prezentace)
prosinec 2014 Miroslav Bárta (AsÚ AVČR): Úvod do numerických metod řešení PDE a jejich aplikace v astrofyzice (prezentace)

říjen 2013 Brankica Šurlan (AsÚ AVČR): Hot massive star winds (články 1, 2, 3, ZIP) - prezentace 1., 2., 3. a 4. část
listopad 2013 Lukáš Shrbený (prezentace), Pavel Koten (prezentace), Jiří Borovička (prezentace) (AsÚ AVČR): Meteory
prosinec 2013 Jiří Svoboda (AsÚ AVČR): Jak se pozorují černé díry? (prezentace 1, 2, 3, 4)

říjen 2012 Petr Scheirich (AsÚ AVČR): Binární planetky (prezentace)
listopad 2012 Ondřej Čadek (Katedra geofyziky MFF UK): Slapové zahřívání a termální vývoj měsíců velkých planet (prezentace 1., 2., 3. a 4. část)
prosinec 2012 Pavel Jáchym (AsÚ AVČR): Úvod do milimetrové interferometrie (prezentace)

říjen 2011 Marco Delbo (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice): Asteroids in Thermal Infrared (prezentace)
listopad 2011 Tomáš Pecháček (AsÚ AVČR): O třech statistických metodách (abstrakt, příklad ke zkoušce: zadání, data)
prosinec 2011 Adam Růžička (AsÚ AVČR): Genetické algoritmy

říjen 2010 David Čapek (AsÚ AVČR): Tepelné jevy v meteoroidech (prezentace 1., 2., 3. část )
listopad 2010 Richard Wünsch (AsÚ AVČR): Hydrodynamické simulace mezihvězdné hmoty (materiály k přednášce)
prosinec 2010 Michal Dovčiak (AsÚ AVČR): Aktivní galaktická jádra z pohledu rentgenové astrofyziky (materiály k přednášce: 1. část, 2. část, 3. část).

říjen 2009 Marek Abramowicz (Göteborg University, Sweden and Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw, Poland): The black hole accretion (syllabus, naskenované poznámky z přednášek laskavě poskytl Ondřej Kopáček)
listopad 2009 Jiří Krtička (Masarykova univerzita, Brno): Hvězdný vítr (prezentace)
prosinec 2009  Vladimír Kopecký (FÚ UK): Astrobiologie (materiály ke stažení)

prosinec 2008 Michael Prouza (FÚ AVČR): Astrofyzika vysokých energií (prezentace 1. část, 2. část, doplňující materiály: astročásticová fyzika – ASPERA roadmap, kosmické záření – přehled, detekce nejenergetičtějších gama fotonů, oscilace neutrin, přímá detekce temné hmoty)
listopad 2008 Pavel Jáchym (AÚ AVČR): Kupy galaxií (prezentace 1., 2., 3. část )
říjen 2008 Michal Švanda (AÚ UK): Sluneční dynamo a fyzika konvektivní zóny (prezentace jsou vystaveny mezi materiály k přednášce Sluneční fyzika)

prosinec 2007 Teorie fotometrických a spektroskopických pozorování (Petr Škoda, AsÚ AVČR, prezentace 1. a 2. část) a ukázky zpracování v programu IRAF (Adéla Kawka, AsÚ AVČR; Marie Hrudková, AÚ UK)
listopad 2007 Miroslav Brož (AÚ UK): Tepelné jevy na planetkách
říjen 2007 Jakub Haloda (Česká geologická služba): Meteority – klasifikace, metody výzkumu a význam pro studium vzniku a vývoje těles sluneční soustavy (sylabus, přednáška)

prosinec 2006Adéla Kawka (AsÚ AVČR): White dwarfs
listopad 2006Jana Kašparová (AsÚ AVČR): Urychlené částice z pohledu sluneční rentgenové emise (1., 2., 3. a 4. část prezentace)
říjen 2006 Rene Goosmann (AsÚ AVČR): Active Galactic Nuclei and Galactic black holes in brief (abstrakt)

květen 2006 Michal Švanda (AsÚ AVČR & AÚ UK): Roztřeseným pohledem na jinak obyčejnou hvězdu za humny (prezentace, část o vývoji Slunce v budoucnosti, populární a přehledný text o helioseismologii, podrobný a více fyzikální text o helioseismologii a Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., 2002: Helioseismology, Reviews of Modern Physics, 74(4), 1073-1129)
duben 2006 Cyril Ron (AsÚ AVČR): Rotace Země její sledování (prezentace 1. a 2. část)
březen 2006 Marek Vandas (AsÚ AVČR): Sluneční vítr a heliosféra (sylabus)

prosinec 2005   David Heyrovský (ÚTF MFF UK): Gravitační čočky na mnoho způsobů (PDF ve velkém a malém rozlišení). Pro další studium je doporučen text R. Narayana a M. Bartelmanna, jenž je ke stažení na webu MPA v Garchingu.
listopad 2005 Bruno Jungwiert (AsÚ AVČR): Koevoluce galaxií a masivních černých děr
říjen 2005 Aleš Bezděk (AsÚ AVČR): Fyzika svrchní atmosféry a její výzkum pomocí umělých družic