Selected chapters on astrophysics (NAST021)

This course is taught in winter semesters and consists of a few independent sub-courses that attempt to provide some insights into the state of the art knowledge in the respective branches of astrophysics or related scientific disciplines. In order to successfully pass the exam, students must complete a set of homework assignments from all of the mandatory sub-courses of the given semester (in maroon below) and present the chosen methods and obtained (correct) results to the examiner (or the whole class) until June 30th of the given academic year. All kinds of information resources are allowed (including consultations with the lecturers and other students). The grade is derived from the degree of correctness of the solutions. Students may enroll to this course repeatedly. In case of any (course related) inquiries, please contact Jaroslav Haas, preferably via email 'haas' (the strange symbol) ''.

Programme of the winter semester 2020/2021

Star clusters as dynamical objects in the galactic ecosystem
František Dinnbier (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague)

- when: Wednesday, September 30th (14:00); Wednesday, October 7th (14:00); Wednesday, October 14th (14:00); Wednesday, October 21st (14:00)
- where: in Zoom, meeting id 999 9500 9281, password upon request
- slides: 1, 2
- recorded lectures (Zoom meetings) available for students upon request
- exam homework: description
- topics to be covered in the individual lectures:

1) Introduction - What are star clusters and where we can find them? Star forming regions. Young embedded star clusters. The interplay between the gas and stars. Feedback from young stars. Open star clusters and associations. Star clusters at the centres of galaxies. Globular star clusters. Surprising peculiarities in systems with negative heat capacity. Gravothermal catastrophe. The correspondence between stellar dynamical and gaseous systems. Bonnor-Ebert spheres. Typical evolution of star clusters as demonstrated by N-body models.
2) Simple models for star clusters - Plummer and King models and their properties. How to generate them (von Newman rejection method).
3) Numerical approaches - Integrators (Runge-Kutta, leap-frog, Hermite). Quantised block time-steps. Ahmad-Cohen method. Regularising techniques. Synthetic stellar evolution. Stellar mergers. Compact objects.
4) The Kustaanheimo-Stiefel regularisation - Introduction and derivation of the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel regularisation method.

Space weathering - pandemic in the Solar System
Kateřina Chrbolková (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague & Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Finland)

- when: Wednesday, November 4th (14:00); Wednesday, November 11th (14:00)
- where: in Zoom, meeting id 997 7489 9102, password upon request
- slides: 1
- recorded lectures (Zoom meetings) available for students upon request
- questions to be discussed:

What are the most common minerals in the airless planetary bodies of the Solar System? What are their characteristic spectral features? What effects do influence the spectra? What is the space weathering and what are its main agents? What are lunar swirls and why are they so special? How do we simulate space weathering here on the Earth?

Selected chapters on astrobiology
Vladimír Kopecký Jr. (Institute of Physics of Charles University, Prague)

- where: in Microsoft Teams, enrolled students already admitted, others on request
- when: pre-recorded lectures and other materials uploaded gradually
- topics covered in the series:

Introduction to astrobiology. The concept of the habitable zone around stars and in galaxies. Astrochemistry. Searching for life in the Solar System and in the Universe.

Planet migration in protoplanetary disks - an astrophysical migrant crisis?
Ondřej Chrenko (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague)

- when: Wednesday, December 9th (14:00); Wednesday, December 16th (14:00); Wednesday, January 6th (14:00)
- where: in Zoom, meeting id 918 0176 3994, password upon request
- slides: 1-online, 1-pdf, 2-online, 2-pdf, 3-online, 3-pdf
- recorded lectures (Zoom meetings) available for students upon request
- exam homework: description
- topics to be discussed:

Planets are born in protoplanetary disks and they migrate (drift towards or away from the central protostar) due to gravitational planet-disk interactions. Disk-driven planet migration can proceed in various distinct regimes and the diversity of possible outcomes is thought to be reflected in the diversity of orbital configurations among observed (exo)planetary systems. This series of lectures will cover:
1) physical principles behind planet-disk interactions (e.g. the Lindblad and corotation torques; gap opening),
2) the dependence of planet migration on the structure and properties of protoplanetary accretion disks (e.g. the influence of heating/cooling, radiative, and viscous processes),
3) challenges in numerical modelling and an overview of the most recent advancements (e.g. the thermal torques; 3D gas flows near protoplanets),
4) the role of planet migration in scenarios of planet formation (e.g. the origin of close-in super-Earths; mergers as giant-planet cores).

Past years

10/2019 Klára Kalousová (Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague): Icy moons in the Solar System - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11/2019 Sambaran Banerjee (University of Bonn, Germany): Dynamics of black holes in dense stellar systems - slides & movies 1, 2, 3, m1, m2
11/2019 Anabella Araudo (ELI Beamlines, Dolní Břežany & Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague): Diffusive shock acceleration - slides 1, 2, 3
11/2019—1/2020 Pavel Ševeček (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague): Numerical solution of partial differential equations - slides, movies, simulations, example codes
12/2019 Sverre Aarseth (University of Cambridge, UK): N-body methods and algorithms - slides

10/2018 Jaroslav Dudík (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague): On the outer solar atmosphere - slides & movies 1, 2, 3, m1, m2, m3, m4
10—12/2018 Jakub Řípa (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague & MTA-Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary): Introduction to gamma-ray burst astrophysics - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11 & 12/2018 Ondřej Pejcha (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University, Prague): Astrophysics of gravitational wave sources - slides 1, 2, 3
1/2019 Hongsheng Zhao (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, UK): An introduction to gravitational microlensing - slides available upon request; further reading on this Wikipedia page

10/2017 Anatoly Miroshnichenko (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA): The emerging variety of binary systems among objects with gas-and-dust envelopes - slides
10 & 11/2017 Rhys Taylor (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague): The dark side of galaxy evolution - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11/2017 Robert Williams (Space Telescope Science Institute & Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA): Emission-line spectroscopy and analysis - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11 & 12/2017 Petr Brož (Institute of Geophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague): Vulkanismus ve sluneční soustavě - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
12/2017 & 1/2018   Jörg Dabringhausen (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague): An introduction to dwarf galaxies - slides 1, 2, 3
1/2018 Michael Fellhauer (University of Concepción, Chile): The survival of star clusters - slides

11/2016 Douglas Heggie (University of Edinburgh, UK): Computation and astrophysics of the N-body problem - slides
11/2016 Jason Dexter (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany): The Galactic Centre black hole laboratory - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
12/2016 & 1/2017   Pavel Kroupa (University of Bonn, Germany; Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague): Modern advances in galactic astrophysics: from scale-invariant dynamics to a successful theory of galaxy formation and evolution - slides 1, 2, 3, 4

10 & 11/2015 Petr Kabáth (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Ondřejov): Exoplanety - slides 1, 2, 3, 4
11/2015 & 1/2016   Attila Mészáros (Astronomical Institute of Charles University, Prague), Martin Jelínek (Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Ondřejov): Zábleskové zdroje záření gama - slides 1, 2
11 & 12/2015 Pavel Kroupa (University of Bonn, Germany): Stellar populations and star clusters as galactic building blocks - slides 1, 2, 3, 4

Very past years

říjen 2014 Frédéric Marin (AsÚ AVČR): Astrophysical polarimetry (prezentace 1., 2. a 3. část)
listopad 2014 Aleš Bezděk (AsÚ AVČR): Gravitační pole Země: nová pozorování a poznatky z umělých družic (prezentace)
prosinec 2014 Miroslav Bárta (AsÚ AVČR): Úvod do numerických metod řešení PDE a jejich aplikace v astrofyzice (prezentace)

říjen 2013 Brankica Šurlan (AsÚ AVČR): Hot massive star winds (články 1, 2, 3, ZIP) - prezentace 1., 2., 3. a 4. část
listopad 2013 Lukáš Shrbený (prezentace), Pavel Koten (prezentace), Jiří Borovička (prezentace) (AsÚ AVČR): Meteory
prosinec 2013 Jiří Svoboda (AsÚ AVČR): Jak se pozorují černé díry? (prezentace 1, 2, 3, 4)

říjen 2012 Petr Scheirich (AsÚ AVČR): Binární planetky (prezentace)
listopad 2012 Ondřej Čadek (Katedra geofyziky MFF UK): Slapové zahřívání a termální vývoj měsíců velkých planet (prezentace 1., 2., 3. a 4. část)
prosinec 2012 Pavel Jáchym (AsÚ AVČR): Úvod do milimetrové interferometrie (prezentace)

říjen 2011 Marco Delbo (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice): Asteroids in Thermal Infrared (prezentace)
listopad 2011 Tomáš Pecháček (AsÚ AVČR): O třech statistických metodách (abstrakt, příklad ke zkoušce: zadání, data)
prosinec 2011 Adam Růžička (AsÚ AVČR): Genetické algoritmy

říjen 2010 David Čapek (AsÚ AVČR): Tepelné jevy v meteoroidech (prezentace 1., 2., 3. část )
listopad 2010 Richard Wünsch (AsÚ AVČR): Hydrodynamické simulace mezihvězdné hmoty (materiály k přednášce)
prosinec 2010 Michal Dovčiak (AsÚ AVČR): Aktivní galaktická jádra z pohledu rentgenové astrofyziky (materiály k přednášce: 1. část, 2. část, 3. část).

říjen 2009 Marek Abramowicz (Göteborg University, Sweden and Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw, Poland): The black hole accretion (syllabus, naskenované poznámky z přednášek laskavě poskytl Ondřej Kopáček)
listopad 2009 Jiří Krtička (Masarykova univerzita, Brno): Hvězdný vítr (prezentace)
prosinec 2009  Vladimír Kopecký (FÚ UK): Astrobiologie (materiály ke stažení)

prosinec 2008 Michael Prouza (FÚ AVČR): Astrofyzika vysokých energií (prezentace 1. část, 2. část, doplňující materiály: astročásticová fyzika – ASPERA roadmap, kosmické záření – přehled, detekce nejenergetičtějších gama fotonů, oscilace neutrin, přímá detekce temné hmoty)
listopad 2008 Pavel Jáchym (AÚ AVČR): Kupy galaxií (prezentace 1., 2., 3. část )
říjen 2008 Michal Švanda (AÚ UK): Sluneční dynamo a fyzika konvektivní zóny (prezentace jsou vystaveny mezi materiály k přednášce Sluneční fyzika)

prosinec 2007 Teorie fotometrických a spektroskopických pozorování (Petr Škoda, AsÚ AVČR, prezentace 1. a 2. část) a ukázky zpracování v programu IRAF (Adéla Kawka, AsÚ AVČR; Marie Hrudková, AÚ UK)
listopad 2007 Miroslav Brož (AÚ UK): Tepelné jevy na planetkách
říjen 2007 Jakub Haloda (Česká geologická služba): Meteority – klasifikace, metody výzkumu a význam pro studium vzniku a vývoje těles sluneční soustavy (sylabus, přednáška)

prosinec 2006Adéla Kawka (AsÚ AVČR): White dwarfs
listopad 2006Jana Kašparová (AsÚ AVČR): Urychlené částice z pohledu sluneční rentgenové emise (1., 2., 3. a 4. část prezentace)
říjen 2006 Rene Goosmann (AsÚ AVČR): Active Galactic Nuclei and Galactic black holes in brief (abstrakt)

květen 2006 Michal Švanda (AsÚ AVČR & AÚ UK): Roztřeseným pohledem na jinak obyčejnou hvězdu za humny (prezentace, část o vývoji Slunce v budoucnosti, populární a přehledný text o helioseismologii, podrobný a více fyzikální text o helioseismologii a Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., 2002: Helioseismology, Reviews of Modern Physics, 74(4), 1073-1129)
duben 2006 Cyril Ron (AsÚ AVČR): Rotace Země její sledování (prezentace 1. a 2. část)
březen 2006 Marek Vandas (AsÚ AVČR): Sluneční vítr a heliosféra (sylabus)

prosinec 2005   David Heyrovský (ÚTF MFF UK): Gravitační čočky na mnoho způsobů (PDF ve velkém a malém rozlišení). Pro další studium je doporučen text R. Narayana a M. Bartelmanna, jenž je ke stažení na webu MPA v Garchingu.
listopad 2005 Bruno Jungwiert (AsÚ AVČR): Koevoluce galaxií a masivních černých děr
říjen 2005 Aleš Bezděk (AsÚ AVČR): Fyzika svrchní atmosféry a její výzkum pomocí umělých družic